DOG BREEDS

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AFFENPINSCHER

Dermatological conditions
Canine follicular dysplasia (seasonal flank alopecia)
• Reported in a small case series
• In this breed, low plasma levels of sex hormones were not considered the cause of the condition

AFGHAN HOUND

Cardiovascular conditions
Heart block
• This breed reported to be predisposed to high‐grade second‐degree or third‐degree heart block in a US case series
• Heavier, older and sexually intact female dogs over‐represented

Musculoskeletal conditions
Panosteitis (enostosis, eosinophilic panosteitis)
• Young males predisposed
• OR 1.9 compared to mixed breeds

Neurological conditions
Afghan myelopathy
• Reported in two case series
• Considered to be inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion
• Onset in young adolescents

Ocular conditions
Cataract
• Prevalence of primary cataract 2.36%, compared to 1.61% in mixed‐breed dogs, in a retrospective study of dogs presenting at North American
teaching hospitals
• Prevalence declined over the years 1964–2003
• Highest prevalence at age 1–2 years in this breed
Corneal oedema (due to infection or vaccination with canine adenovirus type 1)
• Increased susceptibility (less commonly seen with the development of canine adenovirus type 2 vaccines)
• Afghans showed a more profound clinical response than Beagles experimentally (Curtis & Barnett, 1981)

Respiratory conditions
Chylothorax
• Usually idiopathic
• Afghan hounds comprised 37.5% of dogs with idiopathic chylothorax and 26.5% of all dogs with chylothorax
• No sex predisposition noted (Fossum et al., 1986) Laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy syndrome
• Afghans reported to be predisposed
May be inherited by an autosomal dominant mode (Burbidge, 1995) Lung lobe torsion
• Afghans reported to be over‐represented compared to hospital population, with 4/22 cases

AFRICAN BOERBOEL

Musculoskeletal conditions
Elbow dysplasia
• Common in this breed in South Africa
• > 38% incidence
• Males predisposed

Neurological conditions
Cervical spondylomyelopathy (cervical vertebral malformation, wobbler syndrome)
• Seen in first 2 years of life in this breed
• Reported in a South African case series

AIREDALE TERRIER

Cardiovascular conditions
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)
• Increased prevalence with age
• Approximately twice as common in males as in females
• Thought to be familial or genetic
Electrocardiographic abnormalities
• All 42 dogs of this breed investigated in a screening survey had ECG abnormalities
• Abnormalities included mean electrical axis deviations, low‐voltage QRS complexes and first‐degree AV block (Amberger et al., 1996)

Dermatological conditions
Grass awn migration
• Increased prevalence in this breed compared to hospital population
• Common in the summer months Canine follicular dysplasia
• Neutered females predisposed
• A marked predilection in this breed implies a genetic basis for this group of diseases
• Hair loss begins at 2–4 years of age and occurs mainly on the flank

Endocrine conditions
Hypothyroidism
• Breed at increased risk (p < 0.01)
• Genetic component suspected
• May occur at a younger age in breeds at risk (2–3 years)
Ratio of affected males:females higher in at‐risk breeds compared to non‐high‐risk breeds

Haematological/immunological conditions
Haemophilia B
• Severe factor IX deficiency in this breed
• Familial in this breed von Willebrand’s disease
• Type I seen in this breed

Musculoskeletal conditions
Congenital umbilical hernia
• This breed reported to be significantly over‐represented
• Females reported to be at excess risk
Hip dysplasia
• OR 3.9 compared to mixed breeds
• Neutered male dogs predisposed

Neoplastic conditions
Bladder and urethral tumours
• Airedales significantly over‐represented compared to a hospital population
• Male:female ratio 1.95:1, but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05)
Nasal cavity tumours
• Breed at increased risk in a US teaching hospital case series
• Relative risk (RR) 4.6 (95% CI 2.24–9.25)
• Median age 9 years
• Males over‐represented in most studies

Reproductive conditions
Pyometra (cystic endometrial hyperplasia–
pyometra complex)
• Breed at moderately increased risk in a Finnish population

ALASKAN HUSKY

Endocrine conditions
Hypothyroidism (lymphocytic thyroiditis)
• Breed with a higher prevalence of thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAA)
• In a cohort study of 287 948 serum samples from dogs in the USA with clinical signs of hypothyroidism, Huskies had an OR of 1.45 (p = 0.001) of being affected compared to dogs of all other breeds
• Across the study, females were over‐represented, and the highest prevalence was in dogs 2–4 years old

Neurological conditions
Lysosomal storage disease – GM1
gangliosidosis
• Autosomal recessive inheritance; mutation identified
• Symptoms include proportional dwarfism and neurological deficits
from 5–7 months of age
Mitochondrial encephalopathy
• Inherited, mutation identified
• Genetic defect at the level of the thiamine transporter

ALASKAN KLEE KAI

Haematological/immunological conditions
Factor VII deficiency
• 6/18 client‐owned dogs of this breed had this
deficiency in an American study
• Inherited condition

ALASKAN MALAMUTE

Endocrine conditions
Hypothyroidism
• More than 30% of Malamutes had a low T 4 in a sample of 2033 dogs of various breeds, compared to 10% for Dachshunds and Schnauzers
• Median TSH concentration significantly lower in this breed in a series of 693 dogs from 7 different breeds
• American populations studied

Gastrointestinal conditions
Pancreatitis
• This breed reported to be predisposed in a Hungarian series of 80 cases

Haematological/immunological conditions
Stomatocytosis
• Reported in a few cases of Malamutes with chondrodysplasia in a Canadian study
• May be associated with anaemia

Musculoskeletal conditions
Alaskan Malamute chondrodysplasia
• Autosomal recessive inheritance with complete penetrance and variable expression
• American population studied
Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease
• Prevalence in this breed 3.25% (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10–1.50; p = 0.018)
Population studied was from 27 teaching hospitals in the USA
• Neutered female dogs predisposed
Hip dysplasia
• 7.8% prevalence (OR 2.33, 95% CI 2.10–2.58; p < 0.001)
Population studied was from 27 teaching hospitals in the USA
• Neutered male dogs predisposed

Neoplastic conditions
Tracheal and laryngeal tumours
• 5/26 dogs in a series and literature review were Alaskan Malamutes
• 10 of the 26 cases in the study were a Spanish population, the rest were a worldwide literature review
Sebaceous gland tumours
• Breed at risk of sebaceous adenoma and epithelioma in case series
• American population

Neurological conditions
Idiopathic polyneuropathy in Alaskan Malamutes
• Affects mature young adults
• Previously considered eliminated by breeding programmes, but more cases have arisen recently in the USA and northern Europe
• Autosomal recessive inheritance due to a single gene mutation

Ocular conditions
Cone degeneration (hemeralopia or day blindness)
• Autosomal recessive inheritance
• Different underlying mutations reported in American versus Australian populations

AMERICAN PIT BULL TERRIER

Infectious conditions

Babesiosis
High incidence reported in this breed in a number of countries, including USA, Australia and Romania
• In Romania, significantly associated with fighting‐dog breeds, especially American Pit Bulls
Parvovirus enteritis
• Breed at increased risk in cases series
• Age 6 weeks to 6 months at higher risk

Ocular conditions
Retinal dysplasia
• Reported in one purpose‐bred colony from a single affected founder dog in Brazil
• Authors extrapolate that this condition is inherited in this breed
• Autosomal dominant inheritance

Renal and urinary conditions
Urolithiasis – cystine
• Breed at significantly increased risk in case series

AMERICAN STAFFORDSHIRE TERRIER

Behavioural conditions
Aggression
• A genetic basis for aggression has been described
• American Staffordshire Terrier was reported with high aggressivity in Italy
• 5/16 cases which involved repeated biting or shaking of the victim were this breed (all male dogs)

Cardiovascular conditions
Arrhythmia
• American Staffordshire Terrier had the highest prevalence (28.6%) of supraventricular arrhythmias among referred cardiology cases in Poland
Congenital heart disease
• Includes a range of congenital heart disorders
• OR 4.2 compared with all referral dogs in Italy

Dermatological conditions
Atopic dermatitis (atopy)
• In this breed, symptoms started between 1 and 2 years of age more often than at other ages
• Incidence rate (IR) 7.6 per 1000 DYAR (95% CI 4.2–11.0)
• Hungarian and Swedish populations studied
• This breed frequently has adverse reactions to food
Demodicosis
• An inheritance pathway has been described
• This breed had the highest odds of juvenile‐ onset generalized demodicosis: OR 35.6 (95% CI 4.6–277.0) compared with an overall US first‐opinion population (It et al., 2010; Plant et al., 2011)

Endocrine conditions
Hypothyroidism
• Females and younger dogs are predisposed to having serum thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAA) that are associated with hypothyroidism
• American Staffordshire Terrier had OR 1.78 (p = 0.001) for THAA compared with all other breeds

Infectious conditions
Babesiosis
• Purebreds and dogs living in rural areas predisposed, especially in the autumn and spring
• American Staffordshire Terrier was significantly over‐represented, with a prevalence of 33.3% among dogs in Poland showing typical symptoms of babesiosis

Musculoskeletal conditions
Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease
• Estimated heritability of 0.48 and is a highly polygenic complex trait
• Neutered and older individuals are predisposed
• OR 1.62 (95% CI 1.42–1.82) compared with an overall referral population in the USA
• American Staffordshire Terrier had 6.5% prevalence, compared with 1.58% overall in referred dogs in the Czech Republic
Panosteitis (enostosis, eosinophilic panosteitis)
• Young males predisposed
• OR 2.0 compared to mixed breed

Neoplastic conditions
Canine cutaneous histiocytoma
• OR 2.60 (95% CI 1.45–4.68) compared with crossbreeds in the USA
Lymphoma
• German population
• Two comparison populations: own clinic (n=52 142) and insured population (n=123 423)
• Odds ratios 3.3 and 4.6 respectively for the two populations
Mast cell tumour (MCT)
• Mean age at presentation between 7.5 and 9 years, but can occur at any age
• OR 8.57 (95% CI 5.14–8.13) compared with crossbreeds in Austria

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